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Refraction Seismics

The seismic refraction method is based on the principle of generating a front of seismic waves by a source of energy (hammer, explosive, drop weight) and record this signal through various sensors (geophones) which are driven into the ground over a line.

The compressional waves (P waves) travel in the rocks in an analogous way to the propagation of sound waves in the air.

Fronts of spherical waves emanating from the source, and one can you imagine seismic waves as seismic rays, which are normal to the spherical surface of the wave.

The speed at which the P wave propagates in the medium depends on the physical properties (e.g. stiffness, degree of saturation, density) and the degree of homogeneity and of fracturing of the rocks.

Thus, the method of seismic refraction uses the measurement of the time that a compressional wave (P-wave) and shear (S-wave) generated by a seismic source takes to travel through the earth's strata and back to the sensors (geophones) installed along a line on the ground surface.

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Seismic Methods

Seismology

Electrical Resistivity Methods

Electromagnetic Methods

Potential Methods

Underwater Investigation

Integration of Techniques


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